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Women of the Hall

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Year Honored: 1988
Birth: 1862 - Death: 1931
Born In: Mississippi, United States of America
Died In: Illinois, United States of America
Achievements: Arts, Humanities
Educated In: Mississippi, Tennessee
Schools Attended: Rust University, Fisk University
Worked In: Mississippi, Tennessee, Pennsylvania, New York, Massachusetts, Illinois, District of Columbia

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Ida B. Wells-Barnett

Born of slaves, Ida B. Wells-Barnett fought to stop the lynching of Black Americans, carrying her fight to the White House. In 1898 she was part of a delegation to President McKinley demanding government action in the case of a Black postmaster who had been lynched in South Carolina. Wells-Barnett's parents, freed from slavery shortly after her birth, died of malaria when she was 14. To support her brother and sisters, she became a school teacher. While she was traveling to a school in Memphis, Tennessee, a train conductor insisted she move from the parlor car to the smoking car, the one reserved for Blacks. She refused; he grabbed her wrist; she bit him, and Wells-Barnett brought a suit against the railroad for their actions, and won. Later, however, the state court overruled the decision of the circuit court. Her teaching career ended after she wrote a series of articles denouncing the education provided to Black children. She then became part owner of the Memphis Star newspaper. When three of her friends were lynched on false charges, she wrote searing attacks against the practice of lynching. As a result of these and other articles which challenged the actions of whites against blacks, her newspaper was sacked and destroyed. But Wells-Barnett continued the fight, carrying her message to Europe and throughout the country. She was one of the founders of the NAACP and was active in the Negro Women's Club movement. She opposed Booker T. Washington's philosophy of accommodation. She, along with other black women, marched in suffrage parades, and she worked with Jane Addams to block the segregation of schools in Chicago. Ida B. Wells-Barnett was fearless and respected, an uncompromising fighter for the rights of all human beings.
Additional Sources:
Trimiew, Darryl M. Voices of the Silenced: the Responsible Self in a Marginalized Community. Cleveland, Ohio: Pilgrim Press, 1993.

Sterling, Dorothy. Black Foremothers: Three Lives. Old Westbuty, New York: Feminist Press, 1978.

McMurray, Linda O. To Keep the Waters Troubled: The Life of Ida B. Wells. Oxford University Press 2000.

Harris, Trudier, compiler. Selected Works of Ida B. Wells-Barnett. New York: Oxford University Press, 1991.

Royster, Jacqueline Jones, editor. Southern Horrors and Other Writings: the Anti-Lynching Campaign of Ida B. Wells, 1892-1900. Boston: Bedford Books, 1997.

Duster, Alfreda M., editor. Crusade for Justice: The Autobiography of Ida B. Wells. University of Chicago Press, 1991.

With Jane Addams, and edited by Bettina Aptheker. Lynching and Rape: and Exchange of Views. New York: American Institute for Marxist Studies, 1977.
National Women's Hall Event in Chicago