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Women of the Hall

Year Honored: 1993
Birth: 1913 - Death: 2005
Born In: Alabama, United States of America
Died In: Michigan, United States of America
Achievements: Humanities
Educated In: Alabama
Schools Attended: Montgomery Industrial School for Girls, Alabama State Teachers College
Worked In: Alabama, Michigan

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Rosa Parks

"I would like to be known as a person who is concerned about freedom and equality and justice and prosperity for all people," said Rosa Parks on the occasion of her 77th birthday. And so she was.

Parks, known as "the mother of the civil rights movement," walked into history on December 1, 1955 when she refused to give up her seat for a white man on a Montgomery, Alabama bus. Parks was arrested for her defiance, and she agreed to challenge the segregation order in court. After this tactic failed, Parks and others organized the Montgomery bus boycott: "For a little more than a year, we stayed off those busses. We did not return to using public transportation until the Supreme Court said there shouldn't be racial segregation."

Parks and others lost their jobs, and she was harassed and threatened. The boycott held, and an important corner was turned in the movement. Parks and her family eventually moved to Detroit, where she worked for many years for Congressman John Conyers. She founded the Rosa and Raymond Parks Institute for Self-Development to offer guidance to young African Americans in preparation for leadership and careers.
Additional Sources:
Brinkley, Douglas. Rosa Parks. New York: Viking, 2000. NOTES: "Penguin lives series." "A Lipper/Viking book."

Winters, Paul A., editor. The Civil Rights Movement. San Diego, California: Greenhaven Press, c2000. NOTES: "Turning points in world history" series.

With Jim Haskins. Rosa Parks: My Story New York: Dial Books, 1992.

With Gregory J. Reed. Quiet Strength: the Faith, the Hope, and the Heart of a Woman who Changed a Nation/ Reflections by Rosa Parks. Grand Rapids, Michigan: Zondervan Pub. House, 1994.

With Gregory J. Reed. Dear Mrs. Parks: a Dialogue with Today's Youth. New York: Lee & Low Books, 1996.

Papers 1955-1976, Wayne State University, Walter P. Reuther Library, Archives of Labor History and Urban Affairs. Detroit, Michigan.